Dr. Sacha Jones and Dr. Samuel Moore, Office of Scholarly Communication, Cambridge University Libraries
The Open Research at Cambridge conference took place between 22–26 November 2021. In a series of talks, panel discussions and interactive Q&A sessions, researchers, publishers, and other stakeholders explored how Cambridge can make the most of the opportunities offered by open research. This blog is part of a series summarising each event.
As part of the Cambridge Open Research conference, the Office of Scholarly Communication hosted a ‘101’ session on open research, covering the basics and answering queries for the audience on all aspects of open access publication and open data. With over 80 participants, we were thrilled with the response and wanted to recap some of the topics we covered in this post.
Firstly, as we discussed in the session, it is easy to assume that open research is simply an issue for the sciences rather than all academic disciplines. Practices such as open access and open data have been taken up widely in the sciences, although in different ways, and there is a common association with science and openness. This is compounded by the fact that in many European countries Open Science is inclusive of arts and humanities scholarship and so is functionally equivalent to open research. At the OSC, we are keen to support open practices across all disciplines while being sensitive to different ways of working. We are guided by the university’s Open Research Position Statement that requires work to be ‘as open as possible, as closed as necessary’.
After an introduction to open research, Sam then outlined the key issues in open access, including the different licences for making your research open access, the differences between green and gold open access, and the many and various reasons for making your work open access. Open access allows us to reach new audiences, improve the economics of research access, and reassess knowledge production and dissemination in a digital world. We also learned about open access monographs, the complex policy landscape and the various ways in which you can make your research open access through repositories and journals. The OSC’s Open Access webpages are an excellent set of resources for learning more.
We then moved onto open data – research data shared publicly – and how this fits into open research (see the University’s policy framework on research data). After highlighting that all research regardless of discipline generates or uses data of one kind or another (e.g. text, audio-visual, numerical, etc.), Sacha posed a series of questions with answers, anticipating what the audience might want to know more about. Do I have to share my data? What data do I share – is it meant to be everything from my research? My data contains sensitive information so I can’t share my data, or can I? How do I share my data? I don’t want to be criticised after making my data open, so how can I prevent this? How can I stop someone else from taking my data, using it, and getting all the credit? The OSC’s Research Data website contain information about data management and data sharing, and check out our list of Cambridge Data Champion experts to see if there’s anyone who’s volunteered to be a local source of data-related advice in your department or discipline.
We are always available as a source of support and guidance in all matters relating to open research and encourage you to contact us if you have any questions. The OSC has webpages on open research and sites dedicated to both open access and research data. For general open research enquires, we can be emailed at firstname.lastname@example.org, for open access at email@example.com and for data at firstname.lastname@example.org. There are also a number of training sessions provided throughout the year and online that relate to the topics covered in this session. If you think that those in your department or institute at Cambridge would like to know more about the topics covered here then please do get in touch as we’d be happy to speak to these and answer any questions you may have.
This year has seen the necessary move from our usual face-to-face Research Data Management (RDM) training to provision of training online. This has led us to produce an online training session in RDM, covering topics such as data organisation, storage, back up and sharing, as well as data management plans. This forms one component of a broader Research Skills Guide – an online course for Cambridge researchers on publishing, managing data, finding and disseminating research – developed by Dr Bea Gini, the OSC’s training coordinator. We have also contributed to a ‘Managing your study resources’ CamGuide for Master’s students, providing guidance on how to work reproducibly. In collaboration with several University stakeholders we released last month new guidance on the use of electronic research notebooks (ERNs), providing information on the features of ERNs and guidance to help researchers select one that is suitable.
At the start of this year we invited members of the University to apply to become Data Champions, joining the pre-existing community of 72 Data Champions. The 2020 call was very successful, with us welcoming 56 new Data Champions to the programme. The community has expanded this year, not only in terms of numbers of volunteers but also in terms of disciplinary focus, where there are now Data Champions in several areas of the arts, humanities and social sciences in particular where there were none previously. During this year, we have held forums in person and then online, covering themes such as how to curate manual research records, ideas for RDM guidance materials, data management in the time of coronavirus, and data practices in the arts and humanities and how these can be best supported. We look forward to further supporting and advocating the fantastic work of the Cambridge Data Champions in the months and years to come.
The Mammographic Image Society (MIAS) database is a set of mammograms put together in 1992 by a consortium of UK academic institutions and archived on 8mm DAT tape, copies of which were made openly available and posted to applicants for a small administration fee. The mammograms themselves were curated from the UK National Breast Screening Programme, a major screening program that was established in the late 80s offering routine screening every three years to women aged between 50-64.
The motivations for creating the database were to make a practical contribution to computer vision research – which sought to improve the ability of computers to interpret images – and to encourage the creation of more extensive datasets. In the peer-reviewed paper bundled with the dataset, the researchers note that “a common database is a positive step towards achieving consistency in performance comparison and testing of algorithms”.
Due to increased demand, the MIAS database was made available online via third parties, albeit in a lower resolution than the original. Despite no longer working in this area of research, the lead author, John Suckling – now Director of Research in the Department of Psychiatry, part of Cambridge Neuroscience – started receiving emails asking for access to the images at the original resolution. This led him to dig out the original 8mm DAT tapes with the intention of making the images available openly in a higher resolution. The tapes were sent to the University Information Service (UIS), who were able to access the original 8mm tape and download higher resolution versions of the images. The images were subsequently deposited in Apollo and made available under a CC BY license, meaning researchers are permitted to reuse them for further research as long as appropriate credit is given. This is the most commonly used license for open datasets and is recommended by the majority of research funding agencies.
Motivations for sharing the MIAS database openly
The MIAS database was created with open access in mind from the outset. When asked whether he had any reservations about sharing the database openly, the lead author John Suckling noted:
“There are two broad categories of data sharing; data acquired for an original purpose that is later shared for secondary use; data acquired primarily for sharing. This dataset is an example of the latter. Sharing data for secondary use is potentially more problematic especially in consortia where there are a number of continuing interests in using the data locally. However, most datasets are (or should be) superseded, and then value can only be extracted if they are combined to create something greater than the sum of the parts. Here, careful drafting of acknowledgement text can be helpful in ensuring proper credit is given to all contributors.”
This distinction – between data acquired for an original purpose that is later shared for secondary use and data acquired primarily for sharing – is one that is important and often overlooked. The true value of some data can only be fully realised if openly shared. In such cases, as Suckling notes, sufficient documentation can help ensure the original researchers are given credit where it is due, as well as ensuring it can be reused effectively. This is also made possible by depositing the data on an institutional repository such as Apollo, where it will be given a DOI and its reuse will be easier to track.
Impact of the MIAS database
As of August 2020, the MIAS database has received over 5500 downloads across 27 different countries, including some developing countries where breast cancer survival rates are lower. Google Scholar currently reports over 1500 citations for the accompanying article as well as 23 citations for the dataset itself. A review of a sample of the 1500 citations revealed that many were examples of the data being reused rather than simply citations of the article. Additionally, a systematic review published in 2018 cited the MIAS database as one of the most widely used for applying breast cancer classification methods in computer aided diagnosis using machine learning, and a benchmarking review of databases used in mammogram research identified it as the most easily accessible mammographic image database. The reasons cited for this included the quality of the images, the wide coverage of types of abnormalities, and the supporting data which provides the specific locations of the abnormalities in each image.
The high impact of the MIAS database is something Suckling credits to the open, unrestricted access to the database, which has been the case since it was first created. When asked whether he has benefited from this personally, Suckling stated “Direct benefits have only been the citations of the primary article (on which I am first author). However, considerable efforts were made by a large number of early-career researchers using complex technologies and digital infrastructure that was in its infancy, and it is extremely gratifying to know that this work has had such an impact for such a large number of scientists.”. Given that the database continues to be widely cited and has been downloaded from Apollo 1358 times since January 2020, it is still clearly the case that the MIAS database is having a wide impact.
The MIAS Database Reused
As mentioned above, the MIAS database has been widely reused by researchers working in the field of medical image analysis. While originally intended for use in computer vision research, one of the main ways in which the dataset has been used is in the area of computer aided diagnosis (CAD), for which researchers have used the mammographic images to experiment with and train deep learning algorithms. CAD aims to augment manual inspection of medical images by medical professionals in order to increase the probability of making an accurate diagnosis.
A 2019 review of recent developments in medical image analysis identified lack of good quality data as one of the main barriers researchers in this area face. Not only is good quality data a necessity but it must also be well documented as this review also identified inappropriately annotated datasets as a core challenge in CAD. The MIAS database is accompanied by a peer-reviewed paper explaining its creation and content as well as a read me PDF which explains the file naming convention used for the images as well as the annotations used to indicate the presence of any abnormalities and classify them based on their severity. The presence of this extensive documentation combined with it having been openly available from the outset could explain why the database continues to be so widely used.
Reuse example: Applying Deep Learning for the Detection of Abnormalities in Mammograms
This research, published in 2019 in Information Science and Applications, looked at improving some of the current methods used in CAD and attempted to address some inherent shortcomings and increase the competency level of deep learning models when it comes the minimisation of false positives when applying CAD to mammographic imaging. The researchers used the MIAS database alongside another larger dataset in order to evaluate the performance of two existing convolutional neural networks (CNN), which are deep learning models used specifically for classifying images. Using these datasets, they were able to demonstrate that versions of two prominent CNNs were able to detect and classify the severity of abnormalities on the mammographic images with a high degree of accuracy.
While the researchers were able to make good use of the MIAS database to carry out their experiments, due to the inclusion of appropriate documentation and labelling, they do note that since it is a relatively small dataset it is not possible to rule out “overfitting”, where a deep learning model is highly accurate on the data used to train the model, but may not generalise well to other datasets. This highlights the importance of making such data openly available as it is only possible to improve the accuracy of CAD if sufficient data is available for researchers to carry out further experiments and improve the accuracy of their models.
Reuse example: Computer aided diagnosis system for automatic two stages classification of breast mass in digital mammogram images
This research, published in 2019 in Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications, used the MIAS database along with the Breast Cancer Digital Repository to test a CAD system based on a probabilistic neural network – a machine learning model that predicts the probability distribution of a given outcome – developed to automate classification of breast masses on mammographic images. Unlike previously developed models, their model was able to segment and then carry out a two-stage classification of breast masses. This meant that rather than classifying masses into either benign or malignant, they were able to develop a system which carried out a more fine-grained classification consisting of seven different categories. Combining the two different databases allowed for an increased confidence level in the results gained from their model, again raising the importance of the open sharing of mammographic image datasets. After testing their model on images from these databases, they were able to demonstrate a significantly higher level of accuracy at detecting abnormalities than had been demonstrated by two similar models used for evaluation. On images from the MIAS Database and Breast Cancer Digital Repository their model was able to detect abnormalities with an accuracy of 99.8% and 97.08%, respectively. This was also accompanied by increased sensitivity (ability to correctly classify true positives) and specificity (ability to correctly classify false negatives).
Many areas of research can only move forward if sufficient data is available and if it is shared openly. This, as we have seen, is particularly true in medical imaging where despite datasets such as the MIAS database being openly available, there is a data deficiency which needs to be addressed in order to improve the accuracy of the models used in computer-aided diagnosis. The MIAS database is a clear example of a dataset that has enabled an important area of research to move forward by enabling researchers to carry out experiments and improve the accuracy of deep learning models developed for computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging. The sharing and reuse of the MIAS database provides an excellent model for how and why future researchers should make their data openly available.
Published 20th August 2020 Written by Dominic Dixon